为什么Java认为从10到99的所有数字的乘积都是0?

问题

以下代码块将输出设为0。

public class HelloWorld{

    public static void main(String []args){
        int product = 1;
        for (int i = 10; i <= 99; i++) {
            product *= i;
        }
        System.out.println(product);
    }
}

有人可以解释为什么会这样吗?


#1 热门回答(424 赞)

以下是该计划在每个步骤中的作用:

1 * 10 =          10
         10 * 11 =         110
        110 * 12 =        1320
       1320 * 13 =       17160
      17160 * 14 =      240240
     240240 * 15 =     3603600
    3603600 * 16 =    57657600
   57657600 * 17 =   980179200
  980179200 * 18 =   463356416
  463356416 * 19 =   213837312
  213837312 * 20 =   -18221056
  -18221056 * 21 =  -382642176
 -382642176 * 22 =   171806720
  171806720 * 23 =  -343412736
 -343412736 * 24 =   348028928
  348028928 * 25 =   110788608
  110788608 * 26 = -1414463488
-1414463488 * 27 =   464191488
  464191488 * 28 =   112459776
  112459776 * 29 = -1033633792
-1033633792 * 30 =  -944242688
 -944242688 * 31 =   793247744
  793247744 * 32 =  -385875968
 -385875968 * 33 =   150994944
  150994944 * 34 =   838860800
  838860800 * 35 =  -704643072
 -704643072 * 36 =   402653184
  402653184 * 37 =  2013265920
 2013265920 * 38 =  -805306368
 -805306368 * 39 = -1342177280
-1342177280 * 40 = -2147483648
-2147483648 * 41 = -2147483648
-2147483648 * 42 =           0
          0 * 43 =           0
          0 * 44 =           0
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
          0 * 97 =           0
          0 * 98 =           0

请注意,在某些步骤中,乘法会产生较小的数字(980179200 * 18 = 463356416)或不正确的符号(213837312 * 20 = -18221056),表示存在整数溢出。但是零来自哪里?请继续阅读。

记住int数据类型is a 32-bit signed,two's complement整数,这里是每个步骤的解释:

Operation         Result(1)     Binary Representation(2)                                           Result(3)
----------------  ------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------  ------------
          1 * 10            10                                                               1010            10
         10 * 11           110                                                            1101110           110
        110 * 12          1320                                                        10100101000          1320
       1320 * 13         17160                                                    100001100001000         17160
      17160 * 14        240240                                                 111010101001110000        240240
     240240 * 15       3603600                                             1101101111110010010000       3603600
    3603600 * 16      57657600                                         11011011111100100100000000      57657600
   57657600 * 17     980179200                                     111010011011000101100100000000     980179200
  980179200 * 18   17643225600                               100 00011011100111100100001000000000     463356416
  463356416 * 19    8803771904                                10 00001100101111101110011000000000     213837312
  213837312 * 20    4276746240                                   11111110111010011111100000000000     -18221056
  -18221056 * 21    -382642176  11111111111111111111111111111111 11101001001100010101100000000000    -382642176
 -382642176 * 22   -8418127872  11111111111111111111111111111110 00001010001111011001000000000000     171806720
  171806720 * 23    3951554560                                   11101011100001111111000000000000    -343412736
 -343412736 * 24   -8241905664  11111111111111111111111111111110 00010100101111101000000000000000     348028928
  348028928 * 25    8700723200                                10 00000110100110101000000000000000     110788608
  110788608 * 26    2880503808                                   10101011101100010000000000000000   -1414463488
-1414463488 * 27  -38190514176  11111111111111111111111111110111 00011011101010110000000000000000     464191488
  464191488 * 28   12997361664                                11 00000110101101000000000000000000     112459776
  112459776 * 29    3261333504                                   11000010011001000000000000000000   -1033633792
-1033633792 * 30  -31009013760  11111111111111111111111111111000 11000111101110000000000000000000    -944242688
 -944242688 * 31  -29271523328  11111111111111111111111111111001 00101111010010000000000000000000     793247744
  793247744 * 32   25383927808                               101 11101001000000000000000000000000    -385875968
 -385875968 * 33  -12733906944  11111111111111111111111111111101 00001001000000000000000000000000     150994944
  150994944 * 34    5133828096                                 1 00110010000000000000000000000000     838860800
  838860800 * 35   29360128000                               110 11010110000000000000000000000000    -704643072
 -704643072 * 36  -25367150592  11111111111111111111111111111010 00011000000000000000000000000000     402653184
  402653184 * 37   14898167808                                11 01111000000000000000000000000000    2013265920
 2013265920 * 38   76504104960                             10001 11010000000000000000000000000000    -805306368
 -805306368 * 39  -31406948352  11111111111111111111111111111000 10110000000000000000000000000000   -1342177280
-1342177280 * 40  -53687091200  11111111111111111111111111110011 10000000000000000000000000000000   -2147483648
-2147483648 * 41  -88046829568  11111111111111111111111111101011 10000000000000000000000000000000   -2147483648
-2147483648 * 42  -90194313216  11111111111111111111111111101011 00000000000000000000000000000000             0
          0 * 43             0                                                                  0             0
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
          0 * 98             0                                                                  0             0

-是正确的结果

  • 是结果的内部表示(64位用于说明)
  • 是由低32位的二进制补码表示的结果

我们知道将数字乘以偶数:

  • 将位向左移位并向右添加零位
  • 结果是偶数

所以基本上你的程序将偶数乘以另一个数字,从右开始将结果位清零。

PS:如果乘法仅涉及奇数,则结果不会变为零。


#2 热门回答(70 赞)

计算机乘法实际上发生了模2 ^ 32。一旦在被乘数中累积了足够的2的幂,则所有值都将为0。

这里我们有系列中的所有偶数,以及除数的两个最大功率,以及两个的累积功率

num   max2  total
10    2     1
12    4     3
14    2     4
16    16    8
18    2     9
20    4    11
22    2    12
24    8    15
26    2    16
28    4    18
30    2    19
32    32   24
34    2    25
36    4    27
38    2    28
40    8    31
42    2    32

最多42的乘积等于x * 2 ^ 32 = 0(mod 2 ^ 32)。 2的幂的序列与格雷码(以及其他事物)相关,并且显示为https://oeis.org/A001511

编辑:看看为什么对这个问题的其他回答是不完整的,考虑这样一个事实,相同的程序,仅限于奇数整数,不会收敛到0,尽管所有溢出。


#3 热门回答(34 赞)

它看起来像aninteger overflow

看看这个

BigDecimal product=new BigDecimal(1);
for(int i=10;i<99;i++){
    product=product.multiply(new BigDecimal(i));
}
System.out.println(product);

输出:

25977982938941930515945176761070443325092850981258133993315252362474391176210383043658995147728530422794328291965962468114563072000000000000000000000

输出不再是aint值。然后,由于溢出,你将得到错误的值。

如果它溢出,它会回到最小值并从那里继续。如果它下溢,它会回到最大值并从那里继续。

Moreinfo

编辑

让我们按如下方式更改你的代码

int product = 1;
for (int i = 10; i < 99; i++) {
   product *= i;
   System.out.println(product);
}

出局:

10
110
1320
17160
240240
3603600
57657600
980179200
463356416
213837312
-18221056
-382642176
171806720
-343412736
348028928
110788608
-1414463488
464191488
112459776
-1033633792
-944242688
793247744
-385875968
150994944
838860800
-704643072
402653184
2013265920
-805306368
-1342177280
-2147483648
-2147483648>>>binary representation is 11111111111111111111111111101011 10000000000000000000000000000000 
 0 >>> here binary representation will become 11111111111111111111111111101011 00000000000000000000000000000000 
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