Spring Cloud 请求重试机制核心代码分析

场景

发布微服务的操作一般都是打完新代码的包,kill掉在跑的应用,替换新的包,启动。
spring cloud 中使用eureka为注册中心,它是允许服务列表数据的延迟性的,就是说即使应用已经不在服务列表了,客户端在一段时间内依然会请求这个地址。那么就会出现请求正在发布的地址,而导致失败。
我们会优化服务列表的刷新时间,以提高服务列表信息的时效性。但是无论怎样,都无法避免有那么一段时间是数据不一致的。
所以我们想到一个办法就是重试机制,当a机子在重启时,同个集群的b是可以正常提供服务的,如果有重试机制就可以在上面这个场景里进行重试到b而不影响正确响应。

操作

需要进行如下的操作:

ribbon:
  ReadTimeout: 10000
  ConnectTimeout: 10000
  MaxAutoRetries: 0
  MaxAutoRetriesNextServer: 1
  OkToRetryOnAllOperations: false

引入spring-retry包

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.retry</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-retry</artifactId>
 </dependency>

以zuul为例子还需要配置开启重试:

zuul.retryable=true

遇到了问题

然而万事总没那么一帆风顺,通过测试重试机制生效了,但是并没有我想象的去请求另一台健康的机子,于是被迫去吧开源码看一看,最终发现是源码的bug,不过已经修复,升级版本即可。

代码分析

使用的版本是
spring-cloud-netflix-core:1.3.6.RELEASE
spring-retry:1.2.1.RELEASE
spring cloud 依赖版本:

<dependencyManagement>
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>${spring-cloud.version}</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
    </dependencyManagement>

因为启用了重试,所以请求应用时会执行RetryableRibbonLoadBalancingHttpClient.execute方法:

public RibbonApacheHttpResponse execute(final RibbonApacheHttpRequest request, final IClientConfig configOverride) throws Exception {
        final RequestConfig.Builder builder = RequestConfig.custom();
        IClientConfig config = configOverride != null ? configOverride : this.config;
        builder.setConnectTimeout(config.get(
                CommonClientConfigKey.ConnectTimeout, this.connectTimeout));
        builder.setSocketTimeout(config.get(
                CommonClientConfigKey.ReadTimeout, this.readTimeout));
        builder.setRedirectsEnabled(config.get(
                CommonClientConfigKey.FollowRedirects, this.followRedirects));

        final RequestConfig requestConfig = builder.build();
        final LoadBalancedRetryPolicy retryPolicy = loadBalancedRetryPolicyFactory.create(this.getClientName(), this);
        RetryCallback retryCallback = new RetryCallback() {
            @Override
            public RibbonApacheHttpResponse doWithRetry(RetryContext context) throws Exception {
                //on retries the policy will choose the server and set it in the context
                //extract the server and update the request being made
                RibbonApacheHttpRequest newRequest = request;
                if(context instanceof LoadBalancedRetryContext) {
                    ServiceInstance service = ((LoadBalancedRetryContext)context).getServiceInstance();
                    if(service != null) {
                        //Reconstruct the request URI using the host and port set in the retry context
                        newRequest = newRequest.withNewUri(new URI(service.getUri().getScheme(),
                                newRequest.getURI().getUserInfo(), service.getHost(), service.getPort(),
                                newRequest.getURI().getPath(), newRequest.getURI().getQuery(),
                                newRequest.getURI().getFragment()));
                    }
                }
                newRequest = getSecureRequest(request, configOverride);
                HttpUriRequest httpUriRequest = newRequest.toRequest(requestConfig);
                final HttpResponse httpResponse = RetryableRibbonLoadBalancingHttpClient.this.delegate.execute(httpUriRequest);
                if(retryPolicy.retryableStatusCode(httpResponse.getStatusLine().getStatusCode())) {
                    if(CloseableHttpResponse.class.isInstance(httpResponse)) {
                        ((CloseableHttpResponse)httpResponse).close();
                    }
                    throw new RetryableStatusCodeException(RetryableRibbonLoadBalancingHttpClient.this.clientName,
                            httpResponse.getStatusLine().getStatusCode());
                }
                return new RibbonApacheHttpResponse(httpResponse, httpUriRequest.getURI());
            }
        };
        return this.executeWithRetry(request, retryPolicy, retryCallback);
    }

我们发现先new 一个RetryCallback,然后执行this.executeWithRetry(request, retryPolicy, retryCallback);
而这个RetryCallback.doWithRetry的代码我们清楚看到是实际请求的代码,也就是说this.executeWithRetry方法最终还是会调用RetryCallback.doWithRetry

protected <T, E extends Throwable> T doExecute(RetryCallback<T, E> retryCallback,
            RecoveryCallback<T> recoveryCallback, RetryState state)
            throws E, ExhaustedRetryException {

        RetryPolicy retryPolicy = this.retryPolicy;
        BackOffPolicy backOffPolicy = this.backOffPolicy;

        // Allow the retry policy to initialise itself...
        RetryContext context = open(retryPolicy, state);
        if (this.logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
            this.logger.trace("RetryContext retrieved: " + context);
        }

        // Make sure the context is available globally for clients who need
        // it...
        RetrySynchronizationManager.register(context);

        Throwable lastException = null;

        boolean exhausted = false;
        try {

            // Give clients a chance to enhance the context...
            boolean running = doOpenInterceptors(retryCallback, context);

            if (!running) {
                throw new TerminatedRetryException(
                        "Retry terminated abnormally by interceptor before first attempt");
            }

            // Get or Start the backoff context...
            BackOffContext backOffContext = null;
            Object resource = context.getAttribute("backOffContext");

            if (resource instanceof BackOffContext) {
                backOffContext = (BackOffContext) resource;
            }

            if (backOffContext == null) {
                backOffContext = backOffPolicy.start(context);
                if (backOffContext != null) {
                    context.setAttribute("backOffContext", backOffContext);
                }
            }

            /*
             * We allow the whole loop to be skipped if the policy or context already
             * forbid the first try. This is used in the case of external retry to allow a
             * recovery in handleRetryExhausted without the callback processing (which
             * would throw an exception).
             */
            while (canRetry(retryPolicy, context) &amp;&amp; !context.isExhaustedOnly()) {

                try {
                    if (this.logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                        this.logger.debug("Retry: count=" + context.getRetryCount());
                    }
                    // Reset the last exception, so if we are successful
                    // the close interceptors will not think we failed...
                    lastException = null;
                    return retryCallback.doWithRetry(context);
                }
                catch (Throwable e) {

                    lastException = e;

                    try {
                        registerThrowable(retryPolicy, state, context, e);
                    }
                    catch (Exception ex) {
                        throw new TerminatedRetryException("Could not register throwable",
                                ex);
                    }
                    finally {
                        doOnErrorInterceptors(retryCallback, context, e);
                    }

                    if (canRetry(retryPolicy, context) &amp;&amp; !context.isExhaustedOnly()) {
                        try {
                            backOffPolicy.backOff(backOffContext);
                        }
                        catch (BackOffInterruptedException ex) {
                            lastException = e;
                            // back off was prevented by another thread - fail the retry
                            if (this.logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                                this.logger
                                        .debug("Abort retry because interrupted: count="
                                                + context.getRetryCount());
                            }
                            throw ex;
                        }
                    }

                    if (this.logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                        this.logger.debug(
                                "Checking for rethrow: count=" + context.getRetryCount());
                    }

                    if (shouldRethrow(retryPolicy, context, state)) {
                        if (this.logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                            this.logger.debug("Rethrow in retry for policy: count="
                                    + context.getRetryCount());
                        }
                        throw RetryTemplate.<E>wrapIfNecessary(e);
                    }

                }

                /*
                 * A stateful attempt that can retry may rethrow the exception before now,
                 * but if we get this far in a stateful retry there's a reason for it,
                 * like a circuit breaker or a rollback classifier.
                 */
                if (state != null &amp;&amp; context.hasAttribute(GLOBAL_STATE)) {
                    break;
                }
            }

            if (state == null &amp;&amp; this.logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                this.logger.debug(
                        "Retry failed last attempt: count=" + context.getRetryCount());
            }

            exhausted = true;
            return handleRetryExhausted(recoveryCallback, context, state);

        }
        catch (Throwable e) {
            throw RetryTemplate.<E>wrapIfNecessary(e);
        }
        finally {
            close(retryPolicy, context, state, lastException == null || exhausted);
            doCloseInterceptors(retryCallback, context, lastException);
            RetrySynchronizationManager.clear();
        }

    }

在一个while循环里实现重试机制,当执行retryCallback.doWithRetry(context)出现异常的时候,就会catch异常,然后用 retryPolicy判断是否进行重试,特别注意registerThrowable(retryPolicy, state, context, e);方法,不但判断了是否重试,在重试情况下会新选出一个机子放入context,然后再去执行retryCallback.doWithRetry(context)时带入,如此就实现了换机子重试了。
但是我的配置怎么会没有换机子呢?调试代码发现registerThrowable(retryPolicy, state, context, e);选出来的机子没问题,就是新的健康的机子,但是在执行retryCallback.doWithRetry(context)代码的时候依然请求的是那台挂掉的机子。
所以我们再仔细看一下retryCallback.doWithRetry(context)的代码:
我们发现了这行代码:

newRequest = getSecureRequest(request, configOverride);
protected RibbonApacheHttpRequest getSecureRequest(RibbonApacheHttpRequest request, IClientConfig configOverride) {
        if (isSecure(configOverride)) {
            final URI secureUri = UriComponentsBuilder.fromUri(request.getUri())
                    .scheme("https").build(true).toUri();
            return request.withNewUri(secureUri);
        }
        return request;
    }

newRequest在前面已经使用context构建完毕,request是上一次请求的数据,只要执行这个代码就会发现newRequest永远都会被request覆盖。看到这里我们才发现原来是一个源码bug。
issue地址:
https://github.com/spring-cloud/spring-cloud-netflix/issues/2667

总结

这是一次很普通的查问题过程,在这个过程中当我发现配置没有达到我的预期时,我先查看了配置的含义,尝试多次无果,于是进行断点调试发现异常中断点后,因为场景需要一台机子健康一台机子下线,我模拟了数百次,最终才定位到了这行代码。开源项目即使是优秀的项目必然也会有bug存在,不迷信,不盲目。另一方面,阅读源码能力也是一个解决问题的重要能力,像我在找源码入口,定位代码时耗费了很多的时间。