设置全局gcc默认搜索路径

跑步的时候

arm-none-linux-gnueabi-gcc -print-search-dirs | grep libraries | sed 's/:/\n/g'

我得到以下输出:

libraries
 =/opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/
/opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/../../../../arm-none-linux-gnueabi/lib/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/
/opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/../../../../arm-none-linux-gnueabi/lib/
/opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/lib/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/
/opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/lib/
/opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/usr/lib/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/
/opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/usr/lib/

当交叉编译一些包时,它会使我的生活更容易附加到这些路径 . 我知道-L选项,我想使用它,但许多软件包在交叉编译时不尊重它,而且使用它与代码源会导致问题 . (有关详细信息,请参阅本文末尾) . 基本上我有一个完整的目录树,其中包含编译包所需的所有文件,我想将该目录树添加到默认搜索路径中 . 例如,-print-search-dirs也将输出类似于以下内容的路径:

/target/usr/lib
/target/lib

除了已经列出的路径 . 我不是在寻找一个具有代码性的特定答案,因为我有几个可以使用的工具链 .

For those who are curious, here is the error from a codesourcery installation:

arm-none-linux-gnueabi-gcc test.c

作品

arm-none-linux-gnueabi-gcc -L/usr/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi/usr/lib test.c

失败了:

/lib/libc.so.6: file not recognized: File format not recognized
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status

显然它正在 grab 主机的libc . 我已经看到这种情况发生在一个以上的工具链上,但不是全部 .

In response to a comment: 这是输出

arm-none-linux-gnueabi-gcc -L/usr/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi/usr/lib test.c -v -Wl,-verbose
Using built-in specs.
Target: arm-none-linux-gnueabi
Configured with: /scratch/julian/2010q1-release-linux-lite/src/gcc-4.4-2010q1/configure --build=i686-pc-linux-gnu --host=i686-pc-linux-gnu --target=arm-none-linux-gnueabi --enable-threads --disable-libmudflap --disable-libssp --disable-libstdcxx-pch --enable-extra-sgxxlite-multilibs --with-arch=armv5te --with-gnu-as --with-gnu-ld --with-specs='%{funwind-tables|fno-unwind-tables|mabi=*|ffreestanding|nostdlib:;:-funwind-tables} %{O2:%{!fno-remove-local-statics: -fremove-local-statics}} %{O*:%{O|O0|O1|O2|Os:;:%{!fno-remove-local-statics: -fremove-local-statics}}}' --enable-languages=c,c++ --enable-shared --disable-lto --enable-symvers=gnu --enable-__cxa_atexit --with-pkgversion='Sourcery G++ Lite 2010q1-202' --with-bugurl=https://support.codesourcery.com/GNUToolchain/ --disable-nls --prefix=/opt/codesourcery --with-sysroot=/opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc --with-build-sysroot=/scratch/julian/2010q1-release-linux-lite/install/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc --with-gmp=/scratch/julian/2010q1-release-linux-lite/obj/host-libs-2010q1-202-arm-none-linux-gnueabi-i686-pc-linux-gnu/usr --with-mpfr=/scratch/julian/2010q1-release-linux-lite/obj/host-libs-2010q1-202-arm-none-linux-gnueabi-i686-pc-linux-gnu/usr --with-ppl=/scratch/julian/2010q1-release-linux-lite/obj/host-libs-2010q1-202-arm-none-linux-gnueabi-i686-pc-linux-gnu/usr --with-host-libstdcxx='-static-libgcc -Wl,-Bstatic,-lstdc++,-Bdynamic -lm' --with-cloog=/scratch/julian/2010q1-release-linux-lite/obj/host-libs-2010q1-202-arm-none-linux-gnueabi-i686-pc-linux-gnu/usr --disable-libgomp --enable-poison-system-directories --with-build-time-tools=/scratch/julian/2010q1-release-linux-lite/install/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/bin --with-build-time-tools=/scratch/julian/2010q1-release-linux-lite/install/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/bin
Thread model: posix
gcc version 4.4.1 (Sourcery G++ Lite 2010q1-202) 
COLLECT_GCC_OPTIONS='-L/usr/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi/usr/lib' '-v' '-march=armv5te' '-funwind-tables'
 /opt/codesourcery/libexec/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/cc1 -quiet -v test.c -quiet -dumpbase test.c -march=armv5te -auxbase test -version -funwind-tables -o /tmp/ccaDSo09.s
ignoring nonexistent directory "/opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/usr/local/include"
#include "..." search starts here:
#include  search starts here:
 /opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/include
 /opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/include-fixed
 /opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/../../../../arm-none-linux-gnueabi/include
 /opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/usr/include
End of search list.
GNU C (Sourcery G++ Lite 2010q1-202) version 4.4.1 (arm-none-linux-gnueabi)
        compiled by GNU C version 4.3.2, GMP version 4.3.1, MPFR version 2.4.2.
GGC heuristics: --param ggc-min-expand=100 --param ggc-min-heapsize=131072
Compiler executable checksum: 250bf78701f747da89e730786c466148
COLLECT_GCC_OPTIONS='-L/usr/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi/usr/lib' '-v' '-march=armv5te' '-funwind-tables'
 /opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/../../../../arm-none-linux-gnueabi/bin/as -v -march=armv5te -meabi=5 -o /tmp/ccQTJKJd.o /tmp/ccaDSo09.s
GNU assembler version 2.19.51 (arm-none-linux-gnueabi) using BFD version (Sourcery G++ Lite 2010q1-202) 2.19.51.20090709
COMPILER_PATH=/opt/codesourcery/libexec/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/:/opt/codesourcery/libexec/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/:/opt/codesourcery/libexec/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/:/opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/:/opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/:/opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/../../../../arm-none-linux-gnueabi/bin/
LIBRARY_PATH=/opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/:/opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/../../../../arm-none-linux-gnueabi/lib/:/opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/lib/:/opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/usr/lib/
COLLECT_GCC_OPTIONS='-L/usr/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi/usr/lib' '-v' '-march=armv5te' '-funwind-tables'
 /opt/codesourcery/libexec/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/collect2 --sysroot=/opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc --eh-frame-hdr -dynamic-linker /lib/ld-linux.so.3 -X -m armelf_linux_eabi /opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/usr/lib/crt1.o /opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/usr/lib/crti.o /opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/crtbegin.o -L/usr/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi/usr/lib -L/opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1 -L/opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/../../../../arm-none-linux-gnueabi/lib -L/opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/lib -L/opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/usr/lib /tmp/ccQTJKJd.o -verbose -lgcc --as-needed -lgcc_s --no-as-needed -lc -lgcc --as-needed -lgcc_s --no-as-needed /opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/crtend.o /opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/usr/lib/crtn.o
GNU ld (Sourcery G++ Lite 2010q1-202) 2.19.51.20090709
  Supported emulations:
   armelf_linux_eabi
   armelfb_linux_eabi
using internal linker script:
==================================================
/* Script for -z combreloc: combine and sort reloc sections */
OUTPUT_FORMAT("elf32-littlearm", "elf32-bigarm",
              "elf32-littlearm")
OUTPUT_ARCH(arm)
ENTRY(_start)
SEARCH_DIR("=/usr/local/lib"); SEARCH_DIR("=/lib"); SEARCH_DIR("=/usr/lib");
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==================================================
attempt to open /opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/usr/lib/crt1.o succeeded
/opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/usr/lib/crt1.o
attempt to open /opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/usr/lib/crti.o succeeded
/opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/usr/lib/crti.o
attempt to open /opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/crtbegin.o succeeded
/opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/crtbegin.o
attempt to open /tmp/ccQTJKJd.o succeeded
/tmp/ccQTJKJd.o
attempt to open /usr/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi/usr/lib/libgcc.so failed
attempt to open /usr/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi/usr/lib/libgcc.a failed
attempt to open /opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/libgcc.so failed
attempt to open /opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/libgcc.a succeeded
attempt to open /usr/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi/usr/lib/libgcc_s.so failed
attempt to open /usr/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi/usr/lib/libgcc_s.a failed
attempt to open /opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/libgcc_s.so failed
attempt to open /opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/libgcc_s.a failed
attempt to open /opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/../../../../arm-none-linux-gnueabi/lib/libgcc_s.so failed
attempt to open /opt/codesourcery/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.1/../../../../arm-none-linux-gnueabi/lib/libgcc_s.a failed
attempt to open /opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/lib/libgcc_s.so succeeded
-lgcc_s (/opt/codesourcery/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/lib/libgcc_s.so)
attempt to open /usr/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi/usr/lib/libc.so succeeded
opened script file /usr/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi/usr/lib/libc.so
opened script file /usr/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi/usr/lib/libc.so
attempt to open /lib/libc.so.6 succeeded
opened script file /lib/libc.so.6
/lib/libc.so.6: file not recognized: File format not recognized
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status

回答(2)

3 years ago

您的交叉编译glibc配置错误 .

-Wl,-verbose 链接器中说:

attempt to open /usr/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi/usr/lib/libc.so succeeded
opened script file /usr/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi/usr/lib/libc.so

因此,它使用了 -L 选项并且能够打开libc.so.但这不是一个真正的动态库,它是一个脚本(链接器脚本) .

Telepathic模式开启:此 libc.so 脚本的最后一行是

GROUP ( /lib/libc.so.6 /usr/lib/libc_nonshared.a  AS_NEEDED ( /lib/ld-linux.so.3 ) )

Telepathic模式关闭

这一行包含硬编码的绝对路径,并将链接器从arm -... abi重定向到系统的libc,忽略了大多数搜索目标(可能有一些秘密选项 ld ) .

只需使用任何文本编辑器编辑此文件(进行备份),并将所有 /lib 替换为 /usr/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi/lib . (我的良好的交叉编译环境已将此脚本中的所有路径替换为前缀 . )

原始脚本应该用于本机编译,本机运行,但不能用于交叉编译 .

更新:bytesex说http://linux.bytesex.org/cross-compiler.html /usr/lib/libpthread.so 存在同样的问题,也在此文件中进行替换 .

要检查其他库,请在lib目录中执行 file -skL *.so|grep text .

3 years ago

As explained by @osgx,gcc正在寻找其库的错误路径 . 我试图在x86_64上交叉编译arm程序时遇到了类似的问题 . 由于编辑根拥有的文件不是一个选项,我进一步搜索并发现了 --sysroot 选项:

--sysroot = dir使用dir作为标头和库的逻辑根目录 . 例如,如果编译器通常在/ usr / include和/ usr / lib中的库中搜索头文件,则会搜索dir / usr / include和dir / usr / lib . 如果同时使用此选项和-isysroot选项,则--sysroot选项适用于库,但-isysroot选项适用于头文件 . GNU链接器(从版本2.16开始)对此选项具有必要的支持 . 如果链接器不支持此选项,则--sysroot的头文件方面仍然有效,但库方面不行 .

用法示例:

./configure --host=arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi \
    CFLAGS='-g -O2 --sysroot=/tmp/rpi-root'