TypeError时如何转换为字节:无法将字节连接到str

我试图通过API发送数据,但我得到TypeError:无法将字节连接到str . 我理解这意味着我需要将部分代码转换为字节,但我不确定如何执行此操作 . 我尝试在前面添加b或使用字节('data'),但可能会将它们放在错误的区域 .

import http.client

conn = http.client.HTTPSConnection("exampleurl.com")

payload = {
    'FilterId': "63G8Tg4LWfWjW84Qy0usld5i0f",
    'name': "Test",
    'description': "Test1",
    'deadline': "2017-12-31",
    'exclusionRuleName': "Exclude",
    'disable': "true",
    'type': "Type1"
    }

headers = {
    'content-type': "multipart/form-data; boundary=----WebKitFormBoundary7MA4YWxkTrZu0gW",
    'x-csrf-token': "wWjeFkMcbopci1TK2cibZ2hczI",
    'cache-control': "no-cache",
    'postman-token': "23c09c76-3b030-eea1-e16ffd48e9"
    }


conn.request("POST", "/api/campaign/create", payload, headers)


res = conn.getresponse()
data = res.read()

print(data.decode("utf-8"))

这是问题所在:

conn.request("POST", "/api/campaign/create", payload, headers)

我不确定什么以及如何转换为字节 .

回答(1)

2 years ago

如果可以,请使用requests,这样更容易使用 .

否则,您需要urlencode将有效负载发布到服务器 . 您的有效负载的url编码版本如下所示:

description=Test1&exclusionRuleName=Exclude&FilterId=63G8Tg4LWfWjW84Qy0usld5i0f&deadline=2017-12-31&type=Type1&name=Test&disable=true

这是一个工作示例:

import http.client
from urllib.parse import urlencode

conn = http.client.HTTPSConnection("httpbin.org")

payload = {
    'FilterId': "63G8Tg4LWfWjW84Qy0usld5i0f",
    'name': "Test",
    'description': "Test1",
    'deadline': "2017-12-31",
    'exclusionRuleName': "Exclude",
    'disable': "true",
    'type': "Type1"
    }

headers = {
    'Content-Type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded',
    'x-csrf-token': "wWjeFkMcbopci1TK2cibZ2hczI",
    'cache-control': "no-cache",
    'postman-token': "23c09c76-3b030-eea1-e16ffd48e9"
    }

conn.request("POST", "/post", urlencode(payload), headers)

res = conn.getresponse()
data = res.read()

print(data.decode("utf-8"))

http://httpbin.org返回此JSON响应:

{
  "args": {}, 
  "data": "", 
  "files": {}, 
  "form": {
    "FilterId": "63G8Tg4LWfWjW84Qy0usld5i0f", 
    "deadline": "2017-12-31", 
    "description": "Test1", 
    "disable": "true", 
    "exclusionRuleName": "Exclude", 
    "name": "Test", 
    "type": "Type1"
  }, 
  "headers": {
    "Accept-Encoding": "identity", 
    "Cache-Control": "no-cache", 
    "Connection": "close", 
    "Content-Length": "133", 
    "Content-Type": "application/x-www-form-urlencoded", 
    "Host": "httpbin.org", 
    "Postman-Token": "23c09c76-3b030-eea1-e16ffd48e9", 
    "X-Csrf-Token": "wWjeFkMcbopci1TK2cibZ2hczI"
  }, 
  "json": null, 
  "origin": "220.233.14.203", 
  "url": "https://httpbin.org/post"
}

请注意,我使用httpbin.org作为测试服务器,发布到https://httpbin.org/post .

此外,我已将Content-type标头更改为application / x-www-form-urlencoded,因为这是urlencode()返回的格式 .