Unix系统编程:获取要传递给getaddrinfo的网络标识符

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我正在阅读C语言中的代码,以使用系统调用构建服务器 .

main 函数如下:

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
    printf("entered main\n");
    struct addrinfo *ailist, *aip, hint;
    int sockfd, err, n;
    char *host;
    if (argc != 1)
    {
        printf("usage: ruptimed\n");
        exit(1);
    }
    if ((n=sysconf(_SC_HOST_NAME_MAX))<0)
    {
        n = HOST_NAME_MAX;
    }
    if((host = malloc(n)) == NULL)
    {
        printf("malloc error\n");
        exit(1);
    }
    if (gethostname(host, n)<0)
    {
        printf("gethostname error\n");
        exit(1);
    }
    printf("host: %s\n", host);
    printf("Daemonizing\n");
    int res = daemonize("ruptimed");
    printf("%d\n", res);
    printf("Daemonized\n");
    memset(&hint, 0, sizeof(hint)); //set to 0 all bytes
    printf("hint initialized\n");
    hint.ai_flags = AI_CANONNAME;
    hint.ai_socktype = SOCK_STREAM;
    hint.ai_canonname = NULL;
    hint.ai_addr = NULL;
    hint.ai_next = NULL;
    printf("getting addresses\n");
    if((err = getaddrinfo(host, "ruptime", &hint, &ailist))!=0)
    {
        printf("error %s\n", gai_strerror(err));
        syslog(LOG_ERR, "ruptimed: getaddrinfo error %s", gai_strerror(err));
        exit(1);
    }
    printf("Got addresses\n");
    for (aip = ailist; aip!=NULL; aip = aip->ai_next)
    {
        if ((sockfd = initserver(SOCK_STREAM, aip->ai_addr, aip->ai_addrlen, QLEN))>=0)
        {
            printf("starting to serve\n");
            serve(sockfd);
            exit(0);
        }
    }
    exit(1);
}

我的问题是使用 gethostname 获取主机名,然后将其与 getaddrinfo 一起使用 .

在OSX上运行代码我在 host char指针变量中得到一个名称,例如 pippo's-MacBook-pro.local . 将此传递给 getaddrinfo 会导致错误: nodename nor servname provided, or not known .

我期待 gethostname 返回本地IP或本地网络标识符(即使localhost也适合学习) . 我怀疑这个名字可以用来识别一台(本地)服务器而没有在机器上进行适当的设置(另外我不记得这本书说了什么关于设置主机名) .

如何获取要传递给 getaddrinfo 的网络标识符(例如本地IP)?

如果我想使用 gethostname 应该执行哪些更改或设置?

CODE

server.c

#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<unistd.h> //_SC_HOST_NAME_MAX
#include<string.h>
#include<netdb.h> //Here are defined AF_INET and the others of the family
#include<syslog.h> //LOG_ERR
#include<errno.h> //errno
#include <sys/types.h>

#include"utilities.h"
#include "error.h"

#define BUFLEN 128
#define QLEN 10

#ifndef HOST_NAME_MAX
#define HOST_NAME_MAX 156
#endif

int initserver(int type, const struct sockaddr *addr, socklen_t alen, int qlen);
void serve(int sockfd);

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
    printf("entered main\n");
    struct addrinfo *ailist, *aip, hint;
    int sockfd, err, n;
    char *host;
    if (argc != 1)
    {
        printf("usage: ruptimed\n");
        exit(1);
    }
    if ((n=sysconf(_SC_HOST_NAME_MAX))<0)
    {
        n = HOST_NAME_MAX;
    }
    if((host = malloc(n)) == NULL)
    {
        printf("malloc error\n");
        exit(1);
    }
    if (gethostname(host, n)<0)
    {
        printf("gethostname error\n");
        exit(1);
    }
    printf("host: %s\n", host);
    printf("Daemonizing\n");
    int res = daemonize("ruptimed");
    printf("%d\n", res);
    printf("Daemonized\n");
    memset(&hint, 0, sizeof(hint)); //set to 0 all bytes
    printf("hint initialized\n");
    hint.ai_flags = AI_CANONNAME;
    hint.ai_socktype = SOCK_STREAM;
    hint.ai_canonname = NULL;
    hint.ai_addr = NULL;
    hint.ai_next = NULL;
    printf("getting addresses\n");
    if((err = getaddrinfo(host, "ruptime", &hint, &ailist))!=0)
    {
        printf("error %s\n", gai_strerror(err));
        syslog(LOG_ERR, "ruptimed: getaddrinfo error %s", gai_strerror(err));
        exit(1);
    }
    printf("Got addresses\n");
    for (aip = ailist; aip!=NULL; aip = aip->ai_next)
    {
        if ((sockfd = initserver(SOCK_STREAM, aip->ai_addr, aip->ai_addrlen, QLEN))>=0)
        {
            printf("starting to serve\n");
            serve(sockfd);
            exit(0);
        }
    }
    exit(1);
}

void serve(int sockfd)
{
    int clfd;
    FILE *fp;
    char buf[BUFLEN];
    set_cloexec(sockfd);
    for(;;)
    {
        /*After listen, the socket can receive connect requests. accept
        retrieves a connect request and converts it into a connection.
        The file returned by accept is a socket descriptor connected to the client that
        called connect, haing the same coket type and family type. The original
        soket remains available to receive otherconneion requests. If we don't care
        about client's identity we can set the second (struct sockaddr *addr)
        and third parameter (socklen_t *len) to NULL*/
        if((clfd = accept(sockfd, NULL, NULL))<0)
        {
            /*This generates a log mesage.
            syslog(int priority, const char *fformat,...)
            priority is a combination of facility and level. Levels are ordered from highest to lowest:
            LOG_EMERG: emergency system unusable
            LOG_ALERT: condiotin that must be fied immediately
            LOG_CRIT: critical condition
            LOG_ERR: error condition
            LOG_WARNING
            LOG_NOTICE
            LOG_INFO
            LOG_DEBUG
            format and other arguements are passed to vsprintf function forf formatting.*/
            syslog(LOG_ERR, "ruptimed: accept error: %s", strerror(errno));
            exit(1);
        }
        /* set the FD_CLOEXEC file descriptor flag */
        /*it causes the file descriptor to be automatically and atomically closed
         when any of the exec family function is called*/
        set_cloexec(clfd);
        /**pg. 542 Since a common operation is to create a pipe to another process
        to either read its output or write its input Stdio has provided popen and
        pclose: popen creates pipe, close the unused ends of the pipe,
        forks a child and call exec to execute cmdstr and
        returns a file pointer (connected to std output if "r", to stdin if "w").
        pclose closes the stream, waits for the command to terminate*/
        if ((fp = popen("/usr/bin/uptime", "r")) == NULL)
        {
            /*sprintf copy the string passed as second parameter inside buf*/
            sprintf(buf, "error: %s\n", strerror(errno));
            /*pag 610. send is similar to write. send(int sockfd, const void *buf, size_t nbytes, it flags)*/
            send(clfd, buf, strlen(buf),0);
        }
        else
        {
            /*get data from the pipe that reads created to exec /usr/bin/uptime */
            while(fgets(buf, BUFLEN, fp)!=NULL)
            {
                /* clfd is returned by accept and it is a socket descriptor
                connected to the client that called connect*/
                send(clfd, buf, strlen(buf), 0);
            }
            /*see popen pag. 542*/
            pclose(fp);
        }
        close(clfd);
    }
}


int initserver(int type, const struct sockaddr *addr, socklen_t alen, int qlen)
{
    int fd, err;
    int reuse = 1;
    if ((fd = socket(addr->sa_family, type, 0))<0)
    {
        return (-1);
    }
    if (setsockopt(fd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_REUSEADDR, &reuse, sizeof(int))<0)
    {
        goto errout;
    }
    if(bind(fd, addr, alen)<0)
    {
        goto errout;
    }
    if (type == SOCK_STREAM || type == SOCK_SEQPACKET)
    {
        if(listen(fd, qlen)<0)
        {
            goto errout;
        }
    }
    return fd;
    errout:
        err = errno;
        close (fd);
        errno = err;
        return(-1);
}

utilities.c :包含 demonizesetcloexec 函数 . 在 daemonize 函数中,我没有关闭文件描述符进行调试 .

#include "utilities.h"
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <syslog.h>
#include <sys/time.h>//getrlimit
#include <sys/resource.h>//getrlimit
#include <signal.h> //sigempyset , asigcation (umask?)
#include <sys/resource.h>
#include <fcntl.h> //O_RDWR
#include <stdarg.h>

#include "error.h"
int daemonize(const char *cmd)
{
    int fd0, fd1, fd2;
    unsigned int i;
    pid_t pid;
    struct rlimit       rl;
    struct sigaction    sa;
    /* *Clear file creation mask.*/
    umask(0);
    /* *Get maximum number of file descriptors. */
    if (getrlimit(RLIMIT_NOFILE, &rl) < 0)
    {
        err_quit("%s: can’t get file limit", cmd);
    }
    /* *Become a session leader to lose controlling TTY. */
    if ((pid = fork()) < 0)
    {
        err_quit("%s: can’t fork", cmd);
    }
    else if (pid != 0) /* parent */
    {
        exit(0); //the parent will exit
    }
    setsid();
    /* *Ensure future opens won’t allocate controlling TTYs. */
    sa.sa_handler = SIG_IGN;
    sigemptyset(&sa.sa_mask);
    sa.sa_flags = 0;
    if (sigaction(SIGHUP, &sa, NULL) < 0)
    {
        err_quit("%s: can’t ignore SIGHUP", cmd);
    }
    if ((pid = fork()) < 0)
    {
        err_quit("%s: can’t fork", cmd);
    }
    else if (pid != 0) /* parent */
    {
        exit(0);
    }
    /*
    *Change the current working directory to the root so
    * we won’t prevent file systems from being unmounted.
    */
    if (chdir("/") < 0)
    {
        err_quit("%s: can’t change directory to /", cmd);
    }
    /* Close all open file descriptors. */
    if (rl.rlim_max == RLIM_INFINITY)
    {
        rl.rlim_max = 1024;
    }
    printf("closing file descriptors\n");
    /*for (i = 0; i < rl.rlim_max; i++)
    {
        close(i);
    }*/
    /* *Attach file descriptors 0, 1, and 2 to /dev/null.*/
    //printf not working
    /*printf("closed all file descriptors for daemonizing\n");*/
    /*fd0 = open("/dev/null", O_RDWR);
    fd1 = dup(0);
    fd2 = dup(0);*/
    /* *Initialize the log file. Daemons do not have a controlling terminal so
    they can't write to stderror. We don't want them to write to the console device
    because on many workstations the control device runs a windowing system. They can't
    write on separate files either. A central daemon error-logging facility is required.
    This is the BSD. 3 ways to generate log messages:
    1) kernel routines call the log function. These messages can be read from /dev/klog
    2) Most user processes (daemons) call syslog to generate log messages. This causes
    messages to be sent to the UNIX domain datagram socket /dev/log
    3) A user process on this host or on other host connected to this with TCP/ID
    can send log messages to UDP port 514. Explicit network programmin is required
    (it is not managed by syslog.
    The syslogd daemon reads al three of log messages.

    openlog is optional since if not called, syslog calls it. Also closelog is optional
    openlog(const char *ident, int option, int facility)
    It lets us specify ident that is added to each logmessage. option is a bitmask:
        LOG_CONS tells that if the log message can't be sent to syslogd via UNIX
        domain datagram, the message is written to the console instead.
    facility lets the configuration file specify that messages from different
    facilities are to be handled differently. It can be specified also in the 'priority'
    argument of syslog. LOG_DAEMON is for system deamons
    */
    /*
    openlog(cmd, LOG_CONS, LOG_DAEMON);
    if (fd0 != 0 || fd1 != 1 || fd2 != 2)
    {*/
        /*This generates a log mesage.
        syslog(int priority, const char *fformat,...)
        priority is a combination of facility and level. Levels are ordered from highest to lowest:
        LOG_EMERG: emergency system unusable
        LOG_ALERT: condiotin that must be fied immediately
        LOG_CRIT: critical condition
        LOG_ERR: error condition
        LOG_WARNING
        LOG_NOTICE
        LOG_INFO
        LOG_DEBUG

        format and other arguements are passed to vsprintf function forf formatting.*/
        /*syslog(LOG_ERR, "unexpected file descriptors %d %d %d", fd0, fd1, fd2);
        exit(1);
    }*/
    return 0;
}

/*The function set the FD_CLOEXEC flag of the file descriptor already open that
is passed to as parameter. FD_CLOEXEC causes the file descriptor to be
automatically and atomically closed when any of the exec family function is
called*/
int set_cloexec(int fd)
{
    int val;
    /* retrieve the flags of the file descriptor */
    if((val = fcntl(fd, F_GETFD, 0))<0)
    {
        return -1;
    }
    /* set the FD_CLOEXEC file descriptor flag */
    /*it causes the file descriptor to be automatically and atomically closed
     when any of the exec family function is called*/
    val |= FD_CLOEXEC;
    return (fcntl(fd, F_SETFD, val));
}

error functions 我用过

/* Fatal error unrelated to a system call.
* Print a message and terminate*/
void err_quit (const char *fmt, ...)
{
    va_list ap;
    va_start (ap, fmt);
    err_doit (0, 0, fmt, ap);
    va_end (ap);
    exit(1);
}

/*Print a message and return to caller.
*Caller specifies "errnoflag"*/
static void err_doit(int errnoflag, int error, const char *fmt, va_list ap)
{
    char buf [MAXLINE];
    vsnprintf (buf, MAXLINE-1, fmt, ap);
    if (errnoflag)
    {
        snprintf (buf+strlen(buf), MAXLINE-strlen(buf)-1, ": %s",
            strerror (error));
    }
    strcat(buf, "\n");
    fflush(stdout); /*in case stdout and stderr are the same*/
    fputs (buf, stderr);
    fflush(NULL); /* flushes all stdio output streams*/
}

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1回答

  • 2

    getaddrinfo 电话中有一个相对简单的拼写错误

    if((err = getaddrinfo("host", "ruptime", &hint, &ailist))!=0)
    /*                    ^^^^^^   */
    /* Should be the variable host */
    {
        printf("error %s\n", gai_strerror(err));
        syslog(LOG_ERR, "ruptimed: getaddrinfo error %s", gai_strerror(err));
        exit(1);
    }
    

    代码正在寻找 "host" 的地址 . 我也会用 NULL 替换 "ruptime" ,因为ruptime不是/ etc / services中的条目 . 有关详细信息,请参阅getaddrinfo(3) .

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